The splicing tape has to be very thin to avoid impeding the tape's motion, and the adhesive is carefully formulated to avoid leaving a sticky residue on the tape or deck. DBX is another noise reduction system that uses a more aggressive companding technique to improve both dynamic range and noise level. The earliest machines produced distortion during the recording process which German engineers significantly reduced during the Nazi Germany era by applying a " bias " signal to the tape. The first multi-tracking recorders had two, three, or four tracks, then eight, sixteen, and twenty-four, and so on. Backing material type and thickness affect the tensile strength and elasticity of the tape, which affect wow-and-flutter and tape stretch; stretched tape will have a pitch error, possibly fluctuating. In professional half-track use, post-echo is considered less problematic than pre-echo as the echo is largely masked by the signal itself and therefore tapes stored for long periods are kept "tails-out", where the tape must be first wound "backwards" onto the take-up spool before playback.
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A side-effect of cutting the tape at an angle is that on stereo tapes the edit occurs on one channel a split-second before the other.
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The quality of the oxide's binder was also important, for it was common with old tape for the backing to wind on the reel, while the oxide falls off. Grooved surface Phonautogram RCA Victor joined the reel-to-reel business in